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vault_lookup

Secret retrieval from Vault

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Version information

  • 1.0.0 (latest)
  • 0.7.0
  • 0.6.0
  • 0.5.0
  • 0.4.0
  • 0.3.0
  • 0.2.0
  • 0.1.1
released May 1st 2023
This version is compatible with:
  • Puppet Enterprise 2023.1.x, 2023.0.x, 2021.7.x, 2021.6.x, 2021.5.x, 2021.4.x, 2021.3.x, 2021.2.x, 2021.1.x, 2021.0.x
  • Puppet >= 7.0.0 < 8.0.0
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Start using this module

  • r10k or Code Manager
  • Bolt
  • Manual installation
  • Direct download

Add this module to your Puppetfile:

mod 'puppet-vault_lookup', '1.0.0'
Learn more about managing modules with a Puppetfile

Add this module to your Bolt project:

bolt module add puppet-vault_lookup
Learn more about using this module with an existing project

Manually install this module globally with Puppet module tool:

puppet module install puppet-vault_lookup --version 1.0.0

Direct download is not typically how you would use a Puppet module to manage your infrastructure, but you may want to download the module in order to inspect the code.

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Documentation

puppet/vault_lookup — version 1.0.0 May 1st 2023

vault_lookup

Build Status Release Puppet Forge Puppet Forge - downloads Puppet Forge - endorsement Puppet Forge - scores puppetmodule.info docs Apache-2 License

Module to integrate Puppet 6 (and newer) and Puppet Enterprise 2019 (and newer) agents with Hashicorp Vault.

Table of Contents

  1. Description
  2. Requirements
  3. Usage, Configuration, and Examples
  4. Authentication Methods

Description

For Puppet 6+ or Puppet Enterprise 2019+ users wanting to use secrets from Hashicorp Vault on their Puppet agents, this Puppet module provides the vault_lookup::lookup() function.

When used with Puppet 6's Deferred type, the function allows agents to retrieve secrets from Vault when a catalog is applied rather than compiled. In this way, the secret data is not embedded in the catalog and the Puppetserver does not need permissions to read all your Vault secrets.

Requirements

This modules assumes the following:

  1. Puppet 6+
  2. An existing Vault infrastructure

The vault_lookup::lookup() function is expected to be run with the Deferred type; as such, Puppet 6 or later is required.

And as this function is meant to read secrets from Vault, an existing Vault infrastructure is assumed to be up and reachable by your Puppet agents.

Usage

Install this module as you would in any other; the necessary code will be distributed to Puppet agents via pluginsync.

In your manifests, call the vault_lookup::lookup() function using the Deferred type. For example:

$d = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', ["secret/test", 'https://vault.hostname:8200'])

node default {
  notify { example :
    message => $d
  }
}

The lookup function will be run on the agent and the value of $d will be resolved when the catalog is applied. This will make a call to https://vault.hostname:8200/v1/secret/test and wrap the result in Puppet's Sensitive type, which prevents the value from being logged.

You can also choose not to specify the Vault URL, and then Puppet will use the VAULT_ADDR environment variable. This will be either set on the command line, or set in the service config file for Puppet, on Debian /etc/default/puppet, on RedHat /etc/sysconfig/puppet:

$d = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', ["secret/test"])

node default {
  notify { example :
    message => $d
  }
}

Configuring the Vault lookup

The lookup done by vault_lookup::lookup() can be configured in three ways: positional arguments, a hash of options, and/or environment variables.

In all cases, the path to the secret is the first positional argument and is required. All other arguments are optional. Arguments in [square brackets] below are optional.

Positional Arguments

vault_lookup::lookup( <path>, [<vault_addr>], [<cert_path_segment>], [<cert_role>], [<namespace>], [<field>], [<auth_method>], [<role_id>], [<secret_id>], [<approle_path_segment>], [<agent_sink_file>] )

Options Hash

vault_lookup::lookup( <path>, [<options_hash>] )

Environment Variables

Not all options can be set with environment variables. Use the table below to find the matching env var, if available. Also note that environment variables are only used if the option is not supplied to the function.

Option Name Environment Variable
vault_addr VAULT_ADDR
cert_path_segment ----
cert_role ----
namespace VAULT_NAMESPACE
field ----
auth_method VAULT_AUTH_METHOD
role_id VAULT_ROLE_ID
secret_id VAULT_SECRET_ID
approle_path_segment ----
agent_sink_file VAULT_AGENT_SINK_FILE

Usage Examples

Here are some examples of each method:

# Positional arguments

## Using the default 'cert' auth method.
$data_1a = vault_lookup::lookup('secret/db/password', 'https://vault.corp.net:8200')

## Using the 'approle' auth method.
$data_2a = vault_lookup::lookup('secret/db/blah', 'https://vault.corp.net:8200', undef, undef, undef, undef, 'approle', 'team_a', 'abcd1234!@#')

## Pulling out a specific field.
$password = vault_lookup::lookup('secret/test', 'http://vault.corp.net:8200', undef, undef, undef, 'password')
# Options hash

## Using the default 'cert' auth method.
$data_1b = vault_lookup::lookup('secret/db/password', { 'vault_addr' => 'https://vault.corp.net:8200' })

## Using the 'approle' auth method.
$data_2b = vault_lookup::lookup('secret/db/blah', {
  'vault_addr'  => 'https://vault.corp.net:8200',
  'auth_method' => 'approle',
  'role_id'     => 'team_a',
  'secret_id'   => 'abcd1234!@#',
})

# Using 'field' to pull out a specific field from the data.
$password = vault_lookup::lookup('secret/test', {'vault_addr' => 'http://127.0.0.1:8200', 'field' => 'password'})

# Using Deferred is simpler with the options hash.
$password_deferred = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', ["secret/test", {
  vault_addr => 'http://127.0.0.1:8200',
  field      => 'password',
}])

A note about caching

The vault_lookup::lookup() function caches the result of a lookup and will use that cached result for the life of the catalog application (when using Deferred) or catalog compilation (when not using Deferred).

Looked up values are cached based on a combination of their:

  • Path in the Vault URI
  • Vault Address
  • Namespace
  • Field

This means that you can call vault_lookup::lookup() multiple times for the same piece of data or refer to the same Deferred value multiple times and there will only be a single fetch from Vault. This helps to reduce the amount of back-and-forth network traffic to your Vault cluster.

For example, in the code below, due to caching, the secret/db/password value is only looked up once even though the function is called twice:

# Wrap the function in Deferred, and save it to a variable.
#
# Since the path, vault_addr, and namespace don't change, only one Vault lookup
# will be made regardless of how many times the $db_password variable is used.
#
$db_password = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', [
  'secret/db/password',
  {'vault_addr' => 'https://vault.corp.net:8200'},
])

# Call the deferred function once.
file { '/etc/db.conf':
  ensure  => file,
  content => $db_password,
}

# Call the deferred function twice.
notify { 'show the DB password':
  message => $db_password,
}

But if the path, the Vault address, or the namespace change, a new lookup to Vault will happen. For example, in the code below, even though the path is the same in both of these lookups (secret/db/password), the namespace is different, so a separate lookup will be made rather than the cached value from the first lookup of secret/db/password being used.

# Fetch a value from Vault without using a namespace.
$db_password = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', [
  'secret/db/password',
  {'vault_addr' => 'https://vault.corp.net:8200'},
])

# Fetch a value from Vault in the 'dev' namespace.
$db_password_namespaced = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', [
  'secret/db/password',
  {'vault_addr' => 'https://vault.corp.net:8200', 'namespace' => 'dev'},
])

file { '/etc/db.conf':
  ensure  => file,
  content => $db_password,
}

notify { 'show the dev namespace DB password':
  message => $db_password_namespaced,
}

A note about spec testing Puppet code that uses this function

When spec testing Puppet code that uses the vault_lookup::lookup() function, you'll probably want to stub the function so that it doesn't hit your real Vault servers. Below is an example of how to do that. This is particularly useful when spec testing a class or define that defers the function call.

Two things that will need to be configured are 1) a require_relative of the internal puppet_x module. Note that this assumes you're pulling the module down into a spec/fixtures/ directory.

require_relative '../fixtures/modules/vault_lookup/lib/puppet_x/vault_lookup/lookup'

and 2) a stub on the PuppetX::VaultLookup::Lookup class's :lookup method:

before(:each) do
  allow(PuppetX::VaultLookup::Lookup).to receive(:lookup)
    .and_return(Puppet::Pops::Types::PSensitiveType::Sensitive.new('hello world'))
end

Here's a complete example:

require 'spec_helper'
require_relative '../fixtures/modules/vault_lookup/lib/puppet_x/vault_lookup/lookup'

describe 'some::class' do
  on_supported_os.each do |os, os_facts|
    context "on #{os}" do
      let(:facts) { os_facts }

      before(:each) do
        allow(PuppetX::VaultLookup::Lookup).to receive(:lookup)
          .and_return(sensitive('hello world'))
      end

      context 'with all defaults' do
        it { is_expected.to compile }
        it { is_expected.to contain_file('/etc/credentials.txt').with_content(sensitive('hello world')) }
      end
    end
  end
end

Authentication Methods

The vault_lookup::lookup() function can authenticate to Vault in a number of ways. This table shows the currently supported auth_method types:

auth_method Description
cert (this is the default) Uses the Puppet agent's certificate via the TLS Certificates auth method.
approle Uses the AppRole auth method.
agent Uses a local Vault Agent's auto-auth token and caching proxy.
agent_sink Uses a local Vault Agent's auto-auth file sink.

Puppetserver CA and agent certificates

The vault_lookup::lookup() function by default will use the Puppet agent's certificates to authenticate to the Vault server. This means that before any agents contact a Vault server, you must configure the Vault server with the Puppet Server's CA certificate, and Vault must be part of the same certificate infrastructure.

  1. Set up Vault using Puppet certs (if not already set up this way). If the Vault host has a Puppet agent on it then you can just its existing host certificates. Otherwise generate a new certificate with puppetserver ca and copy the files.

    $ puppetserver ca generate --certname my-vault.my-domain.me
    

    In the Vault listener configuration, set tls_client_ca_file as the Puppet CA cert, tls_cert_file as the agent's or generated certificate, and tls_key_file as the agent's or generated private key.

  2. Enable the cert auth backend in Vault.

    $ vault auth enable cert
    
  3. Upload the Puppet Server CA certificate to Vault. After cert auth has been enabled for Vault, upload the CA certificate from your Puppet Server to Vault, and add it as a trusted certificate.

    $ vault write auth/cert/certs/puppetserver \
        display_name=puppet \
        policies=prod,test \
        certificate=@/path/to/puppetserver/ca.pem \
        ttl=3600
    

Once the certificate has been uploaded, any Puppet agent with a signed certificate will be able to authenticate with Vault.

AppRole

vault:vault_lookup() can also use AppRole authentication to authenticate against Vault with a valid role_id and secret_id. See The Approle Vault Documentation for detailed explanations of creating and obtaining the security credentials. You will need the Role ID (non sensitive) and the Secret ID (sensitive!). The Secret ID can be provided as an argument to the vault:vault_lookup() function but it is recommended to pass this as an environment variable and not bake this into code.

Example:

$ vault read auth/approle/role/puppet/role-id
Key        Value
---        -----
role_id    XXXXX-XXXX-XXX-XX-XXXXXXXXXX
# vault write -f auth/approle/role/puppet/secret-id
Key                   Value
---                   -----
secret_id             YYYYY-YYYY-YYY-YY-YYYYYYYYYYY
secret_id_accessor    ZZZZZ-ZZZZZZ-ZZZZZZ-ZZZZZZZZ-ZZZZ
secret_id_ttl         0s

In order to use the AppRole auth method, either set the VAULT_AUTH_METHOD environment variable on the Puppet process to approle or set the auth_method option to approle when calling the function:

export VAULT_AUTH_METHOD=approle
export VAULT_ROLE_ID=XXXXX-XXXX-XXX-XX-XXXXXXXXXX
export VAULT_SECRET_ID=YYYYY-YYYY-YYY-YY-YYYYYYYYYYY

Vault Agent: auto-auth token

This method of authentication relies on a local Vault Agent running on the Puppet agent host. The Vault Agent handles authenticating to your Vault server, and the vault_lookup::lookup() function just needs to make requests through the local Vault Agent's caching proxy. The Vault Agent in this scenario must be using Auto Auth, have Caching enabled, and have use_auto_auth_token set to true.

https://developer.hashicorp.com/vault/docs/agent/caching#using-auto-auth-token

An example Vault Agent config for this scenario is shown below:

vault {
  address = "https://vault.corp.net:8200"
}

listener "tcp" {
  address = "127.0.0.1:8100"
  tls_disable = true
}

auto_auth {
  # Some type of auto_auth configuration from:
  # https://developer.hashicorp.com/vault/docs/agent/autoauth
}

cache {
  use_auto_auth_token = true
}

And here's how the vault_lookup::lookup() function can be used to talk to the local Vault agent and use its token for authentication:

# Talk to the local Vault Agent that has "use_auto_auth_token = true"
$data = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', ["secret/test", {
  vault_addr  => 'http://127.0.0.1:8200',
  auth_method => 'agent',
  field       => 'password',
}])

file { '/tmp/secret_data.txt':
  ensure  => file,
  owner   => 'app',
  group   => 'app',
  mode    => '0440',
  content => $data,
}

A benefit of this method is that is uses the Vault Agent's cached token rather than generating a new token for each call of the function. This reduces the load on your Vault servers as token generation can be an expensive operation.

Vault Agent: auto-auth file sink

This method of authentication relies on a local Vault Agent running on the Puppet agent host. The Vault Agent handles authenticating to your Vault server, and the vault_lookup::lookup() function reads the cached token from a sink file managed by the Vault Agent. Optionally, the lookup could also talk through your Vault Agent's caching proxy if enabled.

The Vault Agent in this scenario must be using Auto Auth and an unencrypted, non-response-wrapped File Sink for the token.

https://developer.hashicorp.com/vault/docs/agent/autoauth/sinks/file

An example Vault Agent config for this scenario is shown below:

vault {
  address = "https://vault.corp.net:8200"
}

# The listener is optional here, but could be used for the 'vault_addr' in
# the vault_lookup::lookup() Puppet function.
listener "tcp" {
  address     = "127.0.0.1:8100"
  tls_disable = true
}

auto_auth {
  # Some type of auto_auth method from:
  # https://developer.hashicorp.com/vault/docs/agent/autoauth/methods
  method { }

  sink {
    type = "file"
    config = {
      path = "/path/to/vault-token
    }
  }
}

And here's how the vault_lookup::lookup() function can be configured to use the token from the auto-auth file sink for authentication:

# Use the token from the local Vault Agent's auto-auth file sink.
$data = Deferred('vault_lookup::lookup', ["secret/test", {
  # This doesn't have to be the local Vault agent's proxy, but using it can
  # provide additional caching.
  vault_addr      => 'http://127.0.0.1:8200',
  auth_method     => 'agent_sink',
  agent_sink_file => '/path/to/vault-token',
  field           => 'password',
}])

file { '/tmp/secret_data.txt':
  ensure  => file,
  owner   => 'app',
  group   => 'app',
  mode    => '0440',
  content => $data,
}

A benefit of this method is that is uses the Vault Agent's cached token rather than generating a new token for each call of the function. This reduces the load on your Vault servers as token generation can be an expensive operation.