hiera5_ldap

Hiera 5 backend for LDAP lookups

Gerard Kok

gerardkok

5,201 downloads

5,058 latest version

5.0 quality score

Version information

  • 0.1.1 (latest)
  • 0.1.0
released Oct 11th 2017
This version is compatible with:
  • Puppet Enterprise 2018.1.x, 2017.3.x, 2017.2.x, 2017.1.x, 2016.4.x
  • Puppet >= 4.9.0 < 6.0.0
  • Ubuntu

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Documentation

gerardkok/hiera5_ldap — version 0.1.1 Oct 11th 2017

hiera5_ldap

BCH compliance

Table of Contents

  1. Description
  2. Setup
  3. Usage
  4. Reference
  5. Limitations
  6. Development

Description

This is a custom Hiera 5 backend, that allows hiera to perform LDAP queries. It is intended to be used in a puppet environment with a puppet master; it (likely) won't work in a masterless puppet environment.

Setup

What hiera5_ldap affects

This backend only reads from LDAP, and does not need write access.

Setup Requirements

This backend leverages the jruby-ldap ruby gem. This gem needs to be installed on your puppet master:

$ sudo /opt/puppetlabs/bin/puppetserver gem install jruby-ldap

You'll also need read access to the LDAP instance you want to query from your puppet master.

Beginning with hiera5_ldap

To be able to query your LDAP instance from hiera, you'll have to configure how to connect to your LDAP instance, in your hiera hierarchy, i.e. in your hiera.yaml file. The minimum configuration would be:

...
hierarchy:
  ...
  - name: "Hiera-LDAP lookup"
    lookup_key: ldap_lookup_key
    options:
      host: '<your LDAP instance>'
  ...

In order to perform LDAP searches, hiera would connect to <your LDAP instance>, using simple binding without username and password, without using SSL, on the default port 389.

In your puppet code, you can now query your LDAP instance with a hiera call:

hiera('ldap:///<LDAP search>')

where LDAP search is formatted like an LDAP URL, like so: <base DN>?<attributes>?<scope>?<filter>.

The result will be an array of hashes, with the LDAP attributes as keys. The value of a hash key, or attribute, is an array of values found in LDAP. The exception is the value of attribute 'dn', which is a string instead of an array.

For example, if your groups are 'posixGroups' in the 'ou=Groups' subtree, you can query the members of the 'admins' group as follows:

hiera('ldap:///ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=com?memberUid?sub?(cn=admins)')

This results in:

- dn: 'cn=admins,ou=Groups,dc=example'
  memberUid: ['admin1', 'admin2', 'admin3']

You have to include the base DN in your query. If you omit the attributes from the query, you'll get all attributes. If you omit the scope, it will default to 'sub', and if you leave out the filter, it will default to 'objectClass=*'. You can also leave out trailing question marks. I.e., if you do

hiera('ldap:///dc=example,dc=com')

you'll get your entire LDAP tree as result.

Usage

The above examples are all 'direct'; the LDAP URL is just a parameter to the hiera call. You can also use 'indirect' LDAP queries, where the actual query is looked up in a yaml file, much like regular hiera keys are looked up. This allows for automatic class parameter lookup.

For example, if you configure your hiera.yaml like this:

...
hierarchy:
  ...
  - name: "Hiera-LDAP lookup"
    path: "nodes/%{trusted.certname}.ldap"
    lookup_key: ldap_lookup_key
    options:
      host: '<your LDAP instance>'
  ...

and the file nodes/<certname>.ldap looks like this:

my_class::users: 'ldap:///ou=People,dc=example,dc=com??sub?uid=*'

and you my_class module looks like this:

class my_class(Array[Hash] $users = [])

then, when the puppet master prepares the for node <certname>, for the value of users it will look up the LDAP query in nodes/<certname>.ldap, perform the query, and plug the value into the users variable.

Indirect queries also support hiera interpolation, so you should be able to write something like:

my_class::host_aliases: 'ldap:///ou=Hosts,dc=example,dc=com?cn?sub?cn=%{facts.hostname}'

Reference

Hiera hierarchy

path/paths

An array of yaml formatted files in your hiera tree that link variables to LDAP queries. I suppose you can re-use your yaml/eyaml hiera file, but I think you'll need to be sure your hiera.yaml contains the LDAP section before yaml or eyaml sections.

options

host

The hostname of your LDAP instance. Required.

port

The port that your LDAP service listens on. Default: 389 when use_ssl is false, 636 when use_ssl is true.

bind_dn

The bind DN necessary to query your LDAP instance, for example: cn=admin,dc=example,dc=com. Default empty.

bind_password

The password that goes with your bind_dn. Default empty.

bind_method

The bind method. Available options: none (which is simple, but with bind_dn and bind_password ignored), simple, sasl. Default: simple.

use_ssl

Whether to use SSL. Boolean, default false.

If you want to use SSL, you'll have to ensure JRuby can verify your LDAP server certificate. For this, you have to you add a certificate to the Java keystore that verifies your LDAP server certificate. For example, this can be the root certificate of your local CA, or the self-signed certificate of your LDAP server.

On Ubuntu, this can be achieved by putting the certificate in /usr/local/share/ca-certificates on your puppet master, and then running update-ca-certificates. On other distributions it will probably work similarly, or you can use keytool to add the certificate to the jre/lib/security/cacerts file in your java distribution. For example:

# keytool -storepass changeit -import -noprompt -alias '<certificate name>' -keystore <cacerts> -file '<certificate file>'

You cannot use SSL and opt out of verifying the certificate, because that is not supported by jruby-ldap.

LDAP URL

An LDAP URL has the following format: ldap:///<base DN>?<attributes>?<scope>?<filter>. The prefix ldap:/// is fixed.

<base DN>

The (search) base DN for your LDAP instance, like ou=People,dc=example,dc=com. Required.

<attributes>

A comma separated list of attributes to return. When empty, all attributes are returned. The special attribute 'dn' is always returned. Default: empty.

<scope>

The scope of the query. Available options: one (singleLevel), base (baseObject), sub (wholeSubtree). Default: sub.

<filter>

LDAP filter to use, follows regular LDAP filter syntax (i.e. you can write complex queries). Default: objectClass=*.

Limitations

This backend uses jruby-ldap instead of net/ldap, because net/ldap requires Ruby 2.0 support, but that is not yet the default on a puppet 4/5 master. I intend to rewrite this to net/ldap once JRuby on a puppet master becomes Ruby 2.0 compatible.

One of the limitations of using jruby-ldap is the absence of StartTLS.

Further limitations:

  • no unit tests to speak of (I have currently no idea how to test a custom hiera backend)
  • this backend has seen extremely limited real-world testing
  • only tested on Ubuntu 16.04.

Todo

  • allow for multiple LDAP servers in hiera.yaml
  • allow for queries to be written as a hash, i.e. like:
    query:
      base_dn: ou=People,dc=example,dc=com
      attributes: uid
      scope: sub
      filter: (uid=*)
    

Development

Run rake spec to run the tests (but nothing useful there right now).

Release Notes

Initial version, treat as a Minimum Viable Product.