krb5keytab

Generates and manages Kerberos host keytabs

Collective, Inc.

collectivemedia

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Version information

  • 0.4.0 (latest)
  • 0.2.0
  • 0.1.0
released Dec 11th 2014
This version is compatible with:
  • CentOS

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Documentation

collectivemedia/krb5keytab — version 0.4.0 Dec 11th 2014

krb5keytab

Build Status

Table of Contents

  1. Overview
  2. Module Description - What the module does and why it is useful
  3. Setup - The basics of getting started with krb5keytab
  4. Usage - Configuration options and additional functionality
  5. Reference - An under-the-hood peek at what the module is doing and how
  6. Limitations - OS compatibility, etc.
  7. Development - Guide for contributing to the module

Overview

This module generates Kerberos keytabs for hosts (manages the /etc/krb5.keytab file) without the need to place a Kerberos administrator credential on the host. It has been extended to manage additional Kerberos principals and keytabs (e.g. for applications).

This module was developed for, and tested with, MIT Kerberos and OpenLDAP on CentOS 6.

Module Description

This module uses custom functions to create the principal and download the keytab on the puppet master, and hiera to store the generated keytabs. The design of this process eliminates the need to call exec{} with a Kerberos administrative credential on every host.

In addition, the module stores the generated keytab file in hiera, so that it is cached for the next run. Some Kerberos implementations (notably MIT) randomize the password each time the keytab is downloaded, so without this feature a new keytab would be generated for each Puppet run. The module is currently able to store the generated key into CouchDB and into a traditional directory/file hiera implementation.

Setup

What krb5keytab affects

The only file on the target system that is affected is /etc/krb5.keytab, which contains the host's Kerberos principal. This keytab is used to authenticate the host itself to network services - for example, sssd uses this keytab to authenticate the host to the LDAP server.

If you choose to generate a keytab for another user and specify a different path for the keytab, then that keytab (rather than /etc/krb5.keytab) will be affected.

Setup Requirements

There are numerous assumptions and configuration parameters required to make full use of this module.

Assumptions

  1. You need to have OpenLDAP and Kerberos running and working in your environment.

  2. You need to have at least one Kerberos administrative principal created, which has (at minimum) the ability to add principals, change passwords, inquire, and list ("clia" in kadm5.acl). We suggest creating a separate principal used only for your Puppet master, e.g.: puppetmaster@YOUR-REALM.COM

    You would place a corresponding entry in the /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.acl file to grant the privileges:

    puppetmaster@YOUR-REALM.COM clia

  3. You need to have Hiera running. If you want to use the feature of this module that saves newly generated keytabs in hiera for you, then your Hiera can be backed by CouchDB (see https://github.com/crayfishx/hiera-http) or the traditional directory and file system hiera.

Beginning with krb5keytab

krb5keytab is configured with numerous parameters in Hiera and/or parameters passed to the class. Please see the "Usage" section for details.

Usage

krb5keytab is configured with numerous parameters in Hiera and/or parameters passed to the class. Parameters passed to the class take precedence over Hiera.

Admin Keytab (required)

Hiera: krb5keytab::admin-keytab

Parameter to class: admin_keytab

The base64 encoded keytab for the administrative Kerberos principal.

Example (this is just random data encoded as BASE64):

VQPlowXZxtrKW8sZv3Ehg2T7W+y1jjxzILnOOHM/GHzykphIHXbvMmezZpupLB3wns8/YNPi4CVM
YGe1rWmCZ7hU0SmEdJNQ9/x2nd2j7YudunhVHAsA8lvE32L0TY8VbpQX4d1y0YxaJeMDksE+M17N
JVKiWeQD7o92guSzp1wapzCA08yZJXZV36Uw21U87NgZPhdbhDE/kzeFep5hrxEIXylaQW8zRCGc
LT/l8RjPCFkjXzxn3VKWsaVaaFC2FCDaEMqkFcxcX5UxatnBqcNtlbR0WTNUiAYu9UDdEz1KVGZc
L5Vxbj3dSmsMm8M2peSSoOl3FgSTUFyqJ9xoiOIPbrJz6MkId1oTW31Lal0hmqTAxZLmYCLNEb6y
yB9J5APTNEW1SPKma7rXmmOQtWZuthYsasWRbFdZKsC96h6jVHzX/pngAhxPBPjEyYUkNBeFSO9W
KIpn3f0KXiFt0+i/Y6N5ZmsODf6fzKUFMW24HogjzleqqhUYEiNdpmZKj5f3iP0Lg2PZpmNFeTzO
2tw6VebNZTCc9REw98sh8L4D0OAF5ProTItJNditAg==

Admin Principal (required)

Hiera: krb5keytab::admin-principal

Parameter to class: admin_principal

The principal's name of your administrative Kerberos principal.

Example:

puppetmaster@YOUR-REALM.COM

Kerberos Realm (required)

Hiera: krb5keytab::krb5-realm

Parameter to class: krb5_realm

The Kerberos realm. In other words, the (usually capitalized) portion of principal names that come after the "@" sign. This is often part of your domain name.

Example:

YOUR-REALM.COM

Hiera Backend (optional)

Hiera: krb5keytab::hiera-backend

Parameter to class: hiera_backend

The type of Hiera backend you run, so that the module can write keytabs that are generated into that Hiera backend for you. The options available are:

  • none (or undefined) -- Do not store generated keytabs in Hiera
  • file -- Store generated keytabs into a directory structure
  • couchdb -- Store generated keytabs into a CouchDB

Note that if you select none or undefined, the code to generate a keytab will be executed each time a Puppet catalog is compiled for a node. On MIT Kerberos, this will result in randomization of the keytab for the host every time. This is probably undesirable.

LDAP Organizational Unit (required)

Hiera: krb5keytab::ldap-ou

Parameter to class: ldap_ou

The place in your LDAP tree where Kerberos principals for hosts should be created. (This can be overridden with each call to create a resource.)

Example:

ou=hosts,dc=your-realm,dc=com

Kerberos Admin Server FQDN or IP Address (required)

Hiera: krb5keytab::krb5-admin-server

Parameter to class: krb5_admin_server

The fully qualified domain name of your Kerberos admin server. This is that server that will be contacted to identify, list, create, and obtain the host principals.

Example:

kerberos1.your-realm.com

Files Hiera Configuration Parameters

The following settings are supported if you set krb5keytab::hiera-backend = file

Hiera File Directory (required if hiera-backend = file)

Hiera: krb5keytab::hiera-file-dir

Parameter to class: hiera_file_dir

The directory where files are created with the host keytabs (this must exist on the Puppet master). Within this directory, files named ${::fqdn}.yaml will be created. Each file will have a field named "krb5-keytab" with the BASE64 encoded keytab.

Use a separate subdirectory for this from all of your other Hiera data. This module tries to preserve existing settings, but this cannot be assured.

CouchDB Hiera Configuration Parameters

The following settings are supported if you set krb5keytab::hiera-backend = couchdb.

The 'couchrest' gem is required for krb5keytab to write to a CouchDB.

CouchDB Server Hostname (optional)

Hiera: krb5keytab::hiera-couchdb-hostname

Parameter to class: hiera_couchdb_hostname

The fully qualified domain name or IP address of your CouchDB server. Defaults to 127.0.0.1.

CouchDB Server Port Number (optional)

Hiera: krb5keytab::hiera-couchdb-port

Parameter to class: hiera_couchdb_port

The port number that CouchDB is running on. Defaults to 5984.

CouchDB Server Database Name (optional)

Hiera: krb5keytab::hiera-couchdb-database

Parameter to class: hiera_couchdb_database

The database name in which to store generated keytabs. Defaults to "keytabs".

Note: Within that database, a document named after ${::fqdn} will be generated, and therein a field named "krb5-keytab" will be created and populated with the BASE64 encoded kerberos keytab.

CouchDB Basic Auth Credentials (optional)

Hiera: krb5keytab::hiera-couchdb-username and krb5keytab::hiera-couchdb-password

Parameter to class: hiera_couchdb_username and hiera_couchdb_password

If CouchDB has basic authentication turned on, supply the username and password to connect. This account must have the ability to create and update records in the assigned database.

Reference

Classes / Defines

krb5keytab::keytab

This is a define that can be used to create keytabs for arbitrary principals, including host principals. You should be using this, as opposed to the old host_keytab class.

A typical define may look like this:

krb5keytab::keytab { "ldap/${::fqdn}":
    keytab       => '/etc/openldap/krb5.keytab',
    keytab_owner => 'root',
    keytab_group => 'ldap',
    keytab_mode  => '0640',
}

The name of the resource should be the name of the principal.

  • For a host keytab, this is: "host/${::fqdn}@YOUR-KERBEROS-REALM.COM"
  • You need to specify the full name of the principal, including the realm name (e.g. some-dude/hostname.yourdomain.com@YOUR-REALM.COM). If the principal does not have a @ in it, the default kerberos realm will be added -- i.e., some-dude/hostname.yourdomain.com will become some-dude/hostname.yourdomain.com@YOUR-REALM.COM automatically.
  • When specifying the principal you can use ${::facter_fact_name} which will be replaced by the appropriate facter fact. ${::fqdn} is likely to be particularly useful.

The following parameters are generally useful for this class.

  • keytab - Keytab file to write -- use /etc/krb5.keytab for the host keytab. This defaults to NULL (i.e. do NOT write a keytab file) if the principal is not the host principal. This is useful behavior if you want to declare that a particular principal exists, but not store its keytab somewhere (Cloudera Manager, for example, requires that a principal exist, but it will pull the keytab itself). If you really want to specify this "NULL" behavior and don't trust the omission of the "keytab" parameter, you can pass keytab => 'none' to be extra sure.
  • keytab_owner - Owner of keytab file -- defaults to root
  • keytab_group - Group of keytab file -- defaults to root
  • keytab_mode - Mode (permissions) of keytab file -- defaults to 0400
  • ldap_ou - See krb5keytab::ldap-ou hiera parameter.
  • hiera_key - Name of the key to create in Hiera -- defaults to 'krb5-keytab' for host keytabs, and the name of the principal for non-host keytabs. (Certain characters in the name of the principal will be replaced with underscores to avoid breaking YAML.)

krb5keytab::host_keytab (DEPRECATED)

Main class to generate and install a host keytab.

This class does not take parameters. The connection and credential parameters for Kerberos are stored in Hiera. The keytab is generated for ${::fqdn}.

This class is being kept for legacy purposes but should be considered DEPRECATED. You should instead use "krb5keytab::keytab" (which is define-based).

Custom Functions

krb5keytab_generatekt(options_hash)

options_hash is a hash containing the following keys:

  • admin_principal - Name of the administrative principal. See krb5keytab::admin-principal hiera parameter.
  • admin_keytab - The full path to a file containing the administrative keytab.
  • ldap_ou - See krb5keytab::ldap-ou hiera parameter.
  • admin_server - See krb5keytab::krb5-admin-server hiera parameter.
  • realm - See krb5keytab::krb5-realm hiera parameter.
  • fqdn - FQDN of the host whose principal is needed.

From this a host principal is built: "host/#{args['fqdn']}@#{args['realm']}"

The "kadmin" command is used to create the principal if needed, and then to retrieve the keytab.

This method returns the content of the keytab (which is binary data).

krb5keytab_saveinhiera(options_hash)

options_hash is a hash containing the following keys:

  • hiera_key - Name of the key to create in Hiera (in our context, "krb5-keytab")
  • fqdn - FQDN of the host whose principal is needed.
  • hiera_backend - One of 'none', 'files', or 'couchdb'
  • hiera_value - Value to write in Hiera (in our context, the BASE64 encoded keytab)

No return value.

krb5keytab_writefile(content)

Creates a temporary file with the content supplied as the argument.

Returns the path to the temporary file.

Limitations

  1. This module was developed on CentOS 6 for OpenLDAP and Kerberos. While we believe that the underlying code will probably work with other flavors of Linux and other implementations of LDAP and Kerberos, this has not been tested.
  2. Only one principal per keytab file is supported at present.

Development

If you wish to contribute, please submit a pull request. All contributions must be licensed to us under the Apache 2.0 license.

Contributors

This module was originally developed at Collective, Inc. (http://www.collective.com). We gratefully acknowledge the following contributors:

  • Kevin Paulisse (original design and code; expansion from class to define)
  • Sarguru Nathan (builds and tests)
  • Millie Kim (file backend for Hiera storage)